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You could not be signed in. The first Hebrew printing press in Constantinople is founded by two Jewish exiles from guess where Spain , Samuel ibn Nahmias and David ibn Nahmias , and another one is founded later in Salonika; too bad, there is a Muslim ban on printing in Arabic and Turkish until the 18th cent.? Architecture: The Cathedral of Toledo begun is finished after the vaults of the central nave are finished. Henry Parker, Dialogue of Dives and Pauper ; first dated book pub.
Inventions: Leonardo da Vinci designs the Airscrew , the first flying machine, but never builds a working model - suggested by his sexual orientation? Filippino Lippi , Saints Paul and Frediano panel. French marshal-constable Anne de Montmorency d.
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Italian poet Agnolo Firenzuola d. German Bavarian pure beer-loving duke and co-duke William IV d. Scottish archbishop of St. Andrews Alexander Stewart d. German Renaissance painter Barthel Bruyn the Elder d.
Dutch Flemish religious poet Anna Bijns d. Transylvanian prince Stephen V Bathory b.braslapaveba.ga
history - Did any Achronim comment on the American Revolutionary or Civil Wars? - Mi Yodeya
Corsica , the Repub. They're thinking of banning toy guns, but keeping the real ones? On May 31 the First Battle of Acentejo on Tenerife in the Canary Islands is a V by the native Guaranches over the Spanish under cruel Javier Alonso Luis Fernndez de Lugo , who conquered La Palma Island in , who lose K casualties, becoming the greatest Spanish D during their Atlantic expansion; after a rock knocks out most of his teeth, de Lugo escapes with his life by ditching his red Adelantado cape and dressing as a common soldier; on Nov.
Pope Alexander VI, eventually threatening to drive Europe to the verge of collapse? Yet another boy Messiah appears on the scene, this time in Persia? Ismail Ism'ail , son of Haydar becomes head of the persecuted Shiite Safavid order, fleeing from Ardabil to Gilan and finding asylum with a local Shiite ruler for five years, during which time he develops ideas regarding his divine leadership and messianic mission, and makes plans to kick White Sheep butt bigtime to prove it? The Pots of Luck goods lottery is introduced in Leipzig, Germany as a popular entertainment.
The U. Christopher Columbus sends Am. The Kingdom of Saloum ends in modern-day Senegal is founded as a sister kingdom to the Kingdom of Sine, with capital at Kahone. The first mention of malted barley whiskey production in Scotland. Nonfiction: Jean Mauburnus, Rosetum Exercitiarum Spiritualium ; first systematic study of musical instruments. Luca di Pacioli , Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria. Proportioni et Proportionalita Venice ; the first textbook on modern accounting theory, incl.
Johann Reuchlin , De Verbo Mirifico. Girolamo Savonarola , Psalms ; disses the Roman Catholic Church for its acceptance of astrology; "I say that astrology, since it tries to divine the future, is the cause of much superstition and heresy. Pinturicchio , Resurrection Apostolic Palace, Vatican ; contains the first known depiction of Native Americans, naked wearing headdresses. Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks begun in Poetry: Matteo Maria Boiardo , Orlando Innamorato ; first poem to combine Arthurian and Carolingian romances, giving new life to the chivalrous epic; left unfinished at his death.
Sebastian Brant , The Ship of Fools Das Narrenschiff ; satirical poem about the gradual advances of Islam on "sleeping" Christendom"; big bestseller; tr. French Valois king 9 Francis Francois I d. But Dame Pulcellina encouraged them all, for she trusted in the affection of the ruler who up to now had been very attached to her. However, his cruel wife, a Jezebel, swayed him, for she also hated Dame Pulcellina.
The end of this story is tragic. Pulcellina was unable to speak with the Count, and thirty-one Jewish lives were lost to death by burning. Pulcellina was offered clemency by the Count, but she refused this if her community was not extended the same. She died with the rest in the fire. Occasionally women were highly successful, as was the case for seventeenth-century Gitl Kozuchowski from Poland who, along with her husband, built a flourishing commercial house.
Her husband outlined her role in his will: She is to deal in all business that there is according to her desire and will. The men in her family were scholars and mystics, while she dealt with the more practical aspects of life. She acted as lady-in-waiting to the Queen Mother, and convinced the king to use her silver to produce coins in royal mint and she finagled a fabulous rate for her silver. She secured for her son the post of tax collector for the king, and for her son-in-law, the position of chief rabbi of Poland. Through these appointments, the Fishel family came to dominate many avenues of power in Poland.
Industrious women became tavernkeepers or inn-keepers. Indeed, the memorable zydowka Jewess who ran the karczma tavern has a nostalgic grip on our imaginations. Her responsibilities, including serving, feeding and housing travelers and visitors, seemed to suit her maternal nature, for she filled this role more successfully than her husband. During those long market days, female vendors. Photo: Bridgeman Images. Loud travelers are beyond your control. Slide the lever, and tiny covers glide over the LED lights that sit within the bulb. Hide and reveal light as needed without affecting electrical currents.
I was busied in the merchandise trade, selling every month to the amount of five or six hundred Reichstalers. Besides this, I went twice a year to the Brunswick Fair and each time made my several thousands profit.
Licoricia of Winchester, England thirteenth century Licoricia was a wealthy Jewess from her youth, most likely due to a large inheritance or ketubah gift. She became an active moneylender while a young woman. Her first husband died, and she remarried David of Oxford, another wealthy English Jew.
He similarly passed away after a few years of marriage, and because of his tremendous wealth, all of his possessions were seized for tax evaluation by Henry III. Licoricia was placed in custody to ensure she would not escape with any hidden assets. She was finally released, but only after paying a tremendous sum to the king, who used the funds to rebuild Westminster Abbey in the gothic style. This was not uncommon in Jewish history. Monarchs have often utilized Jewish wealth to fund their own projects.
After this incident, Licoricia continued to loan funds to the nobility of England. She and her Christian maidservant were murdered by robbers when she was in her fifties. Shtetl Life The Eastern European shtetl11 conjurs up an image of an idyllic world marked by milkmen and water-carriers, bustling marketplaces and cozy wooden homes. But the nostalgia for the simplicity of shtetl life overlooks the unrelenting hardships, extreme poverty and overt anti-Semitism that was part and parcel of shtetl life. Against this backdrop, the shtetl wife was electric, alive, in motion.
The shtetl mother was up by am and went to bed long after her children. Wives of scholars had to assume the responsibilities of daily life, for their husbands had little experience with paying taxes, tending the vegetables or shoveling snow. By the nineteenth century, shopkeeping became one of the most widespread occupations for women, especially for wives of Torah scholars in nineteenth-century Lithuania. Many heartfelt letters reflect the anguish of rabbinic scholars who often traveled to other towns for study, leaving their wives to shoulder a multitude of responsibilities, including the children, the business and aging parents.
Ironically, these economic and societal improvements actually created a stigma against women who did work. This reality paved the way for the second wave feminism in the s, which fought for financial independence for women. So while many of our mothers and grandmothers may have been stayat-home-moms, it is very probable that our great- and great-great grandmothers were industrious businesswomen. Over the millennia, the Jewish woman has drawn upon her many talents, skills and resources to confront a myriad of challenges—be they physical, spiritual or financial.
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This was not commonplace in medieval Europe, a time when men and women were both vital to the workforce. Rabbinic figures often received a stipend from the community, and their wives brought in supplementary income. Wives supporting husbands learning Torah is more of a nineteenth-century Lithuanian phenomenon. After her death by the hand of the Crusades, her husband, Rabbi Elazar the Rokeach , wrote the following eulogy describing her many virtues. A woman of valor who can find? She was the crown of her husband.
She sought out white wool with which she wove fringes, with the willingness of her hands. She thoughtfully planned her mitzvot, and was praised by all who saw her. She was like the merchant ships, feeding her husband, enabling him to study.